Colon cancer is a type of cancer that develops in the large intestine. The colon, the longest part of the large intestine which ends in the anus. Colon cancer is the fourth most common cause of death due to cancer globally and ranks in the top 10 among causes of death due to cancer among Indians, according to the Indian Council of Medical Research.
Adenocarcinoma: Tumour that originates from cells in the lining of the gut that secretes mucus and other fluids.
Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumours (GIST): These are tumours that start in the muscle tissue of the digestive tract.
Lymphoma: These tumours start in the lymph nodes which are part of the body’s immune system.
Carcinoids: These are tumours that start in special hormone-producing cells in the intestine
Rarer syndromes involved with colorectal tumours: Turcot Syndrome, Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome, Familial Colorectal Cancer, Juvenile Polyposis Coli.
This classification can be determined by the pathologist based on the sample taken during surgery or colonoscopy.
If you are diagnosed with colorectal cancer, your doctor or cancer oncologist will run more tests to determine the extent (stage) of your cancer. The stage of your cancer is based on the size and spread of the tumour and helps your doctor or cancer oncologist decide which treatments are optimum.
Sources: European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO); American Cancer Society; ICMR; Stanford Health.