Oesophagus is a muscular tube that connects the mouth to the stomach. Its also commonly called the food pipe. Oesophageal cancer is the 6th most common cancer in India and is also the 6th most common cause of cancer-related deaths in India. In 2018 there were 52,396 new cases and 46,504 deaths in India due to Oesophageal cancer.
Oesophageal cancer may be classified based on cell type: Squamous cell carcinoma (originates from squamous cells that line the oesophagus and is found in the upper and middle part of the oesophagus) or Adenocarcinoma (originates from the glandular tissue in the lower part of the oesophagus).
If you are diagnosed with cancer, the doctors that treat cancer or the specialist of cancer, will run more tests to determine the extent (stage) of your cancer. Your cancer's stage is an important input in deciding on your treatment. The stage of a cancer describes the size of the cancer and how far it has spread. It may be described as stage 0 to stage IV, by a specialist of cancer, who takes into account: the size of the cancer, whether the lymph nodes are affected, if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
Sources: Cancer India; Cancer.Net; Cancer.org; European Society of Medical Oncology (ESMO)