According to Globocan, there were 1,19,992 new cases of oral cancer and 72,616 deaths reported in India in 2018 alone. Studies have found a definitive link between use of tobacco (smoking) and development of oral cancer.
A specialist of cancer may classify it on the basis of its appearance under the microscope and behaviour of the tumour. Oral cancers can be classified based on parameters such as type of cell (squamous cell carcinoma, papillary carcinoma, verrucous carcinoma etc.), depth of invasion of cancer (<4mm or >4mm), Infiltration into blood vessels or nerve (vascular and perineural infiltration respectively).
These are determined by a pathologist based on the sample from the tumor.
If you are diagnosed with oral cancer, your doctor will run more tests to determine the extent (stage) of your cancer. Your cancer's stage is an important input, for a specialist of cancer, in deciding on your treatment. The stage of a cancer describes the size of the cancer and how far it has spread. It may be described as stage 0 to stage IV and takes into account: the size of the cancer, whether the lymph nodes are affected, if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
Sources: Globocan; Cancer Treatment Centres of America; European Society of Medical Oncology (ESMO)