Types of oncologists and their roles in your cancer treatment

By DCode Care Team | January 8th 2022

Types of oncologists and their roles in your cancer treatment

Types of oncologists and their roles in your cancer treatment

Cancer is a very bad disease that greatly affects a person's mental and physical well-being. There is a need for a specialist in oncology who can diagnose cancer and treat it with suitable treatment. Oncologists are the physicians who develop a specialized treatment according to the patient's pathology reports. They offer the required care for treating the disease to eliminate the tumor out of the body. We believe very few people know about the different types of oncologists and how they perform their job for treating cancer.

Most think that there is a single physician who treats all types of cancers. However, things are completely different as every oncologist performs their job separately. So, our team has created a dedicated post where these special types of specialists will be explained adequately.

1. Medical Oncologist

A medical oncologist is a specialized doctor who mainly diagnoses cancer in the body of patient and gives suitable treatment using biological, hormonal, chemo, and targeted therapy. They are responsible for taking care of patients from the time of cancer diagnosis in their bodies to the final treatment.

Apart from that, you will often see them providing supportive care to the patient and coordinating with other specialists to treat them in the best possible manner. It is considered the duty of these doctors to help the patients in dealing with the side effects of treatment. There is also a need for mental care once the cancer treatment finishes that both family members and doctors together needs to give.

Major roles of medical oncologists

  • Giving proper descriptions to patients about cancer diagnosis and its extent. Here, they will know about how far cancer has spread in the body.
  • Providing useful information about what kind of treatments is available for the diagnosed disease. They will recommend the most suitable treatment for treating cancer adequately.
  • Ensuring top-quality and superb care to the patient during the treatment process for good recovery.
  • Assisting the patient in maintaining the quality of life, either by controlling symptoms or easing side effects.

2. Radiation Oncologists

A radiation oncologist is a cancer specialist who treats cancer using the therapeutic powers of radiation. Technology has made great advances in recent years, and this treatment is terrific proof of it. The doctors use high-energy beams during this treatment to kill the cancer cells. According to a survey, more than 40% of cancer treatments are done by radiation oncologists.

The level of radiation depends greatly on how cancer responds to the treatment. For example, small seeds of irradiated material are enough if only a small area is affected by cancer. On the other hand, oncologists will use highly intense radiation beams for cancers that have spread to the larger body.

Major roles of radiation oncologists

  • Performing the necessary tests and examinations for finding the extent of cancer.
  • Radiation oncologists are fully responsible for monitoring the progress and modifying the treatment to ensure proper patient care.
  • Creating treatment plans that include the adequate therapeutic process and right dosages of drugs.
  • Giving pharmacological treatment according to the type & stage of cancer.
  • Suggesting what kind of lifestyle changes patients should make after receiving treatment.

3. Gynecologic Oncologist

There are many cases where cancer spreads in the reproductive organs of women. The physician that treats such tumors is called a gynecologic oncologist. They have brief knowledge about the women’s internal system thanks to specific knowledge and training. These physicians have great knowledge about the diagnostic techniques involving reproductive organ surgery.

The major types of cancers treated by gynecologic oncologists are uterine cancer, ovarian cancer, and cervical cancer. If we talk about this profile, three major areas work as a base for treatment. It includes surgical oncology, medical oncology, and radiation oncology.

Major roles of a gynecologic oncologist

  • They are fully responsible for performing the physical evaluations of the patient, followed by gathering any medical histories.
  • These types of medical oncologists also have to educate patients and their families regarding cancer and how much it has progressed in the body.
  • Using various diagnostic techniques like tissue sampling procedures and medical imaging for identifying cancer.
  • Performing different therapy treatments to minimize the effects of cancer and effectively remove it from the body.
  • It is also their duty to provide general counseling to the patients and their family members.

4. Surgical Oncologists

A surgical oncologist is a physician who uses surgery for curing cancer. The main goal of these oncologists is to team up with the patient's primary care doctor to create a treatment plan for removing the tumor. In a few cases, they also involved in biopsies work for diagnosing cancer.

They are just traditional surgeons with extra training in oncology and other similar procedures in simple language. Many readers might be amazed to know that it is one of the oldest techniques for treating cancers even mentioned in Egyptian history books. Surgery is an incredible treatment that has helped millions of people get relief from cancer tumors.

Roles of surgical oncologists

  • Managing cancers with lots of anatomic sites in the body.
  • Handling of complex cancer presentations.
  • Performing surgery for removing the tumor out from the patient’s body.
  • Giving long-term care to the patients for identifying reoccurrences and primaries of cancer.
  • Collaborating with other doctors to create a plan to improve the overall care of patients after surgery.

5. Pediatric Oncologist

In recent times, we have acknowledged the number of cancer cases is increasing in young children. A doctor who diagnoses and treats cancers in kids is known as a pediatric oncologist. They generally treat kids from birth to 18 years old. However, there are few exemption cases where they might treat adults over the age of 21 years.

There is a variety of cancers generally treated by a pediatric oncologist, including lymphomas, brain tumors, solid tumors, and leukemia. They also treat disorders related to clotting and bleeding in many cases. Additionally, these physicians also assist in treating diseases of blood cells like red cells, white cells, and platelets. A pediatric oncologist has to work with extra care as children aren’t as good as adults in dealing with such stuff.

Major roles of pediatric oncologists

  • Treating infants and children for various forms of cancers with meditations and chemotherapy.
  • Diagnosing cancer using different tests in patients
  • Giving treatments, creating plans, and coordinating with other doctors to manage side effects.
  • Using different methods like stem cell transplants, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and radiation therapy among others.
  • Counseling and communicating with kids for better care after treatment.


Oncologists are very responsible individuals who have to work very dedicatedly throughout cancer treatment. A cancer patient needs lots of mental and physical care that only these physicians can understand. They have to deal with lots of complexity during the course of treatment. There are various types of medical oncologists who deal with particular cancers to treat the disease amazingly.

We believe you understand how oncologist deals with different cancers? Please write about it in the comment section if you have any queries regarding oncology and related cancers!